Tuesday, October 17, 2017

An Oracle Analysis

I'm going to illustrate how I interpret my Oracle results, because I still see a lot of people asking "what do my Oracle results mean?" If you haven't already, you may want to read my intro guide to Gedmatch's Admixture and Oracle, but I'd like to elaborate on that a little bit.

Firstly, it's important to remember that the results can be very speculative and it's best not to take them very literally. People in neighboring regions simply share too much DNA to always be able to tell them apart with accuracy. That means the more narrowed down the areas are in the result, the more speculative it is. You could be German, for example, and get French results because they are neighboring countries who share a lot of DNA. It doesn't mean you're French, it just means this particular calculator put that French/German shared DNA into French instead of German.

Eurogenes K13 Oracle 4, using 4 populations approximation
Secondly, your results are going to be different for each calculator you use so don't just stick to one, explore all those which apply to your background (ie, don't go using Ethiohelix when you're 100% European). Certain calculators may give you more or less accuracy than others. In my personal experience, Eurogenes K13 Oracle 4 (right) isn't very accurate. It really wants me to be Jewish and I'm really not - I have no known Jewish ancestry and don't get any Jewish results from any of the big 4 companies, or in any of Gedmatch's Admixtures. It crops up in the odd Oracle result, but none so much as Eurogenes K13 Oracle 4 populations. I personally have found K15 and EUtest Oracle's to be more accurate, and since K15 is a more recent version of EUtest, that's what I'm going to use to demonstrate how to read Oracle results in some more depth than before.

I find the best thing to do is rather than look at your Oracle results and try to pick one combination that fits you best, or shows the closest distance, look at the results on the whole. Which populations are you seeing the most? Which ones the least? Although I like to look at 4 populations the most because I am primarily from 4 different regions in Europe, you can also look at the 1, 2, and 3 populations modes.

These are my Eurogenes EUtest V2 K15 Oracle 4 results:

1 Orcadian + South_Italian + West_German + West_German @ 4.425306
2 French + South_Italian + West_German + West_Norwegian @ 4.689746
3 South_Italian + Southwest_English + West_German + West_German @ 4.689806
4 East_Sicilian + Orcadian + West_German + West_German @ 4.747531
5 Italian_Jewish + Orcadian + West_German + West_German @ 4.835878
6 East_Sicilian + Southwest_English + West_German + West_German @ 4.850750
7 Italian_Abruzzo + West_German + West_German + West_German @ 4.853912
8 North_Dutch + South_Italian + West_German + West_German @ 4.863277
9 French + Orcadian + South_Italian + West_German @ 4.911067
10 South_Italian + Southeast_English + West_German + West_German @ 4.914701
11 Tuscan + West_German + West_German + West_German @ 4.922722
12 Central_Greek + Orcadian + West_German + West_German @ 4.922800
13 South_Italian + West_German + West_German + West_Norwegian @ 4.927629
14 Irish + South_Italian + West_German + West_German @ 4.941526
15 South_Italian + West_German + West_German + West_Scottish @ 4.958009
16 East_Sicilian + French + West_German + West_Norwegian @ 4.978409
17 East_Sicilian + French + Orcadian + West_German @ 4.982550
18 South_Italian + West_German + West_German + West_German @ 5.005996
19 South_Italian + Spanish_Galicia + West_Norwegian + West_Norwegian @ 5.010231
20 Central_Greek + Southwest_English + West_German + West_German @ 5.011045

So rather than saying the top results must be the most accurate because it's the closest distance, and determining it to be only somewhat accurate because it did identify my German, Italian, and Scottish ancestry, but not my English or Norwegian, let's look at the entire results as a whole.

Map showing my known ancestor's birth
places in Europe
What am I seeing the most? Probably West German. This is very accurate, I have a lot of West German ancestry on both sides of my tree, and I estimate it makes up about 25% of my tree. I also have a couple Swiss-German branches, which is still fairly consistent with West German. There's one ancestor who was from Bavaria, which is a region of Germany more to the east, but I have no idea what part of Bavaria - could have been the western most part for all I know. What I do know is that I rarely ever get admixture/ethnicity results in Eastern Europe and when I do, it's normally in such small portions, it's likely noise. So this is all very consistent with my tree.

I'm also seeing South Italian and some other Italian regions like East Sicilian and Abruzzo. This is incredibly accurate. I do indeed have Sicilian, Abruzzo, and other Southern Italian ancestry. My paternal grandmother was of entirely Italian descent so that makes up another 25% of my tree. My Sicilian branch is a bit more Northern Sicily than Eastern, but that's fairly negligible. There's one count of Tuscan and as far as I know I have no Tuscan ancestry, but that too is probably not very significant since it only shows up once.

There's a few West Norwegians thrown in there, which is also accurate, I have one great grandparent who was Norwegian, making up 12.5% of my tree. Several branches were indeed from Western Norway, although one branch did come from the more Eastern towns of Bamble and Skien.

Map showing my population results for
Eurogenes K15 Oracle 4, compare with above map
You may also notice a few Orcadian and West Scottish populations. This is somewhat accurate, I do have several Scottish or Scots-Irish branches dating back to colonial times, but where exactly in Scotland they were from isn't really known. Orcadian (people from the Orkney Islands) seems a little unlikely as my understanding is most Orcadian immigrants went to Canada through the Hudson Bay Company rather than the US. But if we consider Orcadian as a representation of my Scottish or even British heritage, it makes sense. The Orcadians were also influenced by the Vikings, so there's also a potential connection to my Norwegian side. My overall British branches make up about 34% of my tree, and in addition to Scottish, includes English, so it's not surprising to find a few instances of Southeast or Southwest English. As you can see from the map above, I do indeed have ancestry in Southwest and Southeast England, although I have more recent roots in Northern England, near Manchester so it's a shame it didn't pick this up. It's possible Oracle is underestimating my British ancestry, since there's only a few English populations included, but when you consider how genetically similar the British and Germans are, and knowing how many instances of West German are listed, it makes some sense.

I lastly have a smidgen of colonial Dutch and French Huguenot in my tree but I don't know how realistic it is to expect that to show up in admixture results, as it may have been from too long ago. They make up about 1-2% each of my tree. So when I see a few results for North Dutch and French, I'm taking it with a grain of salt. I'd like to think it could be from colonial ancestry but the way Oracle works by identifying the populations you match most closely, it doesn't seem likely I would closely match a population from so far back in my tree. It seems more likely that it's just being picked up from neighboring regions where I have ancestry.

Likewise, I wouldn't put much thought into the remaining few instances of Italian Jewish, Central Greek, Irish, and Spanish Galicia. Irish is probably just representing my British background, as those two groups are closely related, and likewise, Italian Jewish, Central Greek, and Spanish Galicia may be related to my Italian heritage since they're all from that Mediterranean area. In any case, since there's only one or two counts of them, it's easy to ignore them.

So overall, despite the fact that it doesn't always identify my British/English ancestry as much as it maybe should, it's actually remarkably accurate when you look at it on the whole. Compare the two maps above, one showing the origins of my ancestors and the other showing my Oracle results, and they really aren't far off each other (keeping mind some of the locations for the Oracle map cover a larger area than what the pinpoints represent). Mapping it out is another good, fun way to analyze your admixture or Oracle results, if you'd like to try it, just go to My Google Maps.

I don't normally worry too much about the distance unless it starts getting really high. For example, K13's Oracle has closer distances than K15, but the populations in K15 are far more accurate for me than K13. I am NOT saying K15 is the best option for everyone. When I look at my dad's K15 Oracle results, they are mostly inaccurate, constantly insisting he is Lebanese Druze, which seems very off base. I can't even promise that there will be an Oracle calculator that is as accurate for you as Eurogenes K15 is for me, since I haven't really found one for my dad that is this accurate (he does get a lot of Abruzzo results in various calculators, which is accurate, but there's also a lot of populations that are kind of out there for him).

Also keep in mind some of the calculators contain a lot of ancient (prehistoric) populations. If you see some weird names like "Battle Axe" or "Bell Beaker", these are probably ancient populations (Battle Axe is Neolithic, Bell Beaker is western Europe in late Neolithic-early Bronze Age).

I hope this gives some more detailed insight in how you might interpret your own Oracle results. If you are adopted and don't know your ancestral background, it's difficult to know which calculators will be more accurate than others. You should definitely still take all this with a grain of salt, but it is fun to examine and compare with what we do know.


  1. This information was extremely helpful, you really put it out there in layman’s terms, BUT I am still thouroghly confused by my results...they are all over the place. I would love it if you could take a look at my info and offer any advice. Kit A413599

    Admix Results (sorted):
    # Population Percent
    1 ASHKENAZI 17.28
    2 WEST_AFRICAN 14.67
    3 EAST_MED 12.84
    4 ATLANTIC 10.78
    5 WEST_MED 10.5
    8 SOUTH_BALTIC 5.08
    9 SIBERIAN 4.06
    10 WEST_ASIAN 4.04
    11 EAST_AFRICAN 3.34
    12 EAST_EURO 1.83
    13 SOUTH_ASIAN 1.61

    Thank you SO much in advance, if you can!

    1. That's certainly interesting you have results in 13 out of 14 populations, but I probably wouldn't put too much stock in results under about 5%. It's possible Jtest just isn't the best admixture calculator for you. What is your known ancestry?

  2. It's interesting to learn more about Oracle.

  3. How did you map it using Google Maps? I tried to copy the "Spreadsheet" into My Google Maps, but it didn't go. I'm hoping I'm doing something wrong, and there's an easy way to do it. :)

    1. You have to search for each location individually, then click "add to map". You can also add spots manually by clicking "add marker" at the top, then clicking where you want to add a marker.

    2. I have the same question. When I do a search on say, "East_Med", I get the name of an Eastern Mediterranean doctor's office in NYC. Is there a Google Map option specifically for interpreting the Oracle-4 results?

    3. GJ, places that don't have political boundaries but are just geographical regions like East Mediterranean aren't official areas so they won't be in Google maps. But you can add your own markers wherever you want in My Google Maps - just click the "add marker" button at the top (under the search bar).

  4. Thanks for the analysis info. I am just getting into this some and the stuff on GEDmatch can be a little overwhelming. My ancestors came form Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, but on all models I am seeing Orkney Islands. But then I did remember my brother mentioning years ago that there were some Norwegian farm names matching some Scottish Island place names. Certainly Viking DNA crossover. But in my case, I am thinking a migration from Scotland to Norway around perhaps 1400s. And this would have filtered into many families. Don't take this as truth because I don't have record to prove it. But I don't think GEDmatch is wrong. I think it's probably accurate for how much Orkney/Orcadian/Scottish comes up (my family tree goes back as far as we have records 2-450 years in some locations, never beyond Scandinavia, but that's not that long in the span of humankind).

    My other info coming up repeatedly is Baltic, which makes enough sense with the Swedish empire. And Russia (also connected to movement into Sweden). Hungarian/Slovenian consistently does not even surprise me (small amounts). 1-2% south Asian would explain possible Roma, who would have been forced into settlement in the 1600-1700s. But I have no proof of this (but south Asian is usually Roma in Europe, and it would possibly explain the dark skinned and black haired Swedes). Sometimes following the search with European history helps it make a little more sense, but it doesn't really provide concrete answers. But it has been very interesting.

    For me Eurogenes 13 was a little better that EUtest, but both nailed Sweden, Norway, Denmark as top, then even North Germany (Danes who were from Schlesswig, but I think one strand of German families based on names in the tree). So the others are probably accurate, though maybe less perfect as drifting towards trace amounts.

  5. Was wondering about the meaning of the column headings that appear in spreadsheet of Admixture/Oracle with Population Search. Having for example Mesoamerican as the column and Apache as the row with 34.53 and then the NorthAmerind column with 43.81 in the Apache row. I think this is an indication confirming the small percentage of American Indian ancestors I have from a long time ago. Correct or not?

    1. There is a good explanation of the Spreadsheet feature available here: http://www.rootsandrecombinantdna.com/2015/12/gedmatchs-new-spreadsheet-feature.html - It is not your personal results, it simply tells you more about the reference populations. If you check the spreadsheet for multiple different kits, you'll see they are the same for everyone.

  6. I was curious to see if I could also get a better understanding of this. I used the MDLP 22 world, I am from Puerto Rico, parents are also, grandparents etc.
    My cousin did some research on my maternal grandfather, African slave from Italy married indigenous woman from Puerto Rico and here we are.
    These were my results with the calculator
    1 Puerto-Rican_derived @ 5.256896
    2 Ashkenazim_V_derived @ 20.415228
    3 Portugese_derived @ 20.742107
    4 Italian-North_derived @ 21.050951
    5 Miwok_derived @ 21.179125
    6 Lumbee_derived @ 21.203547
    7 Swiss_derived @ 21.741407
    8 Corsican_derived @ 21.861517
    9 Italian_North_derived @ 21.998463
    10 Greek_South_derived @ 22.178032
    11 Provancestralal_derived @ 22.455303
    12 Romania_derived @ 22.708944
    13 Iberian_derived @ 22.960508
    14 Greek_North_derived @ 23.113239
    15 Jew_Romania_derived @ 23.802633
    16 Kosovar_derived @ 23.973373
    17 Bulgarian_derived @ 23.993357
    18 Greek_Center_derived @ 24.016945
    19 Mexican_derived @ 24.129742
    20 Gagauz_derived @ 24.238602

    1 Corsican_derived + Lumbee_derived + Mexican_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.221315
    2 Italian-North_derived + Lumbee_derived + Mexican_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.375066
    3 Lumbee_derived + Mexican_derived + Portugese_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.383956
    4 Ashkenazim_V_derived + Lumbee_derived + Mexican_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.385729
    5 Miwok_derived + Moroccan_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived + Welsh_derived @ 4.470404
    6 British_derived + Miwok_derived + Moroccan_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.477238
    7 CEU_derived + Miwok_derived + Moroccan_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.484256
    8 German_V_derived + Miwok_derived + Moroccan_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.489669
    9 German-South_derived + Lumbee_derived + Miwok_derived + Mozabite_derived @ 4.500559
    10 CEU_V_derived + Miwok_derived + Moroccan_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.586166
    11 Austrian_derived + Miwok_derived + Moroccan_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.613389
    12 French_derived + Lumbee_derived + Miwok_derived + Mozabite_derived @ 4.636646
    13 German-South_derived + Miwok_derived + Moroccan_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.711123
    14 German-South_derived + Lumbee_derived + Mexican_derived + Mozabite_derived @ 4.712764
    15 Miwok_derived + Moroccan_derived + Orcadian_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.755253
    16 British_derived + Lumbee_derived + Mexican_derived + Mozabite_derived @ 4.804958
    17 German-North_derived + Miwok_derived + Moroccan_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.852050
    18 Iberian_derived + Lumbee_derived + Mexican_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.868965
    19 Greek_South_derived + Lumbee_derived + Mexican_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.886279
    20 Hungarian_derived + Miwok_derived + Moroccan_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 4.930348
    Please help! Thank you in advance for your time!

    1. Well, the single population results are mostly 20+ distance so they're not very close matches, and I wouldn't put much stock in them. Your 4 population results seem fairly typical for someone Puerto Rican - a mix of Native American and European. I don't see much African in there apart from Moroccan and Mozabite. Your European results look like they might be part Southern and part Northern.

  7. Hello, I have found your post to be the most helpful out of everyone's. DNA_Land showed Pima on my map so I have been trying to understand what is native american and what is Mexican because 23 and me did a really poor job of giving me info on this. Can you tell me what this means?

    Using 4 populations approximation:
    1 Apache_derived + Jordanian_derived + Norwegian_V_derived + Orcadian_derived @ 3.428330
    2 Apache_derived + Jew_Romania_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived + Swedish_V_derived @ 3.448981
    3 Apache_derived + Egyptian_derived + Norwegian_V_derived + Orcadian_derived @ 3.517338
    4 Apache_derived + British_derived + Egyptian_derived + Norwegian_V_derived @ 3.521949
    5 Apache_derived + CEU_derived + Egyptian_derived + Norwegian_V_derived @ 3.569556
    6 Apache_derived + Basque_derived + Inkeri_derived + Jordanian_derived @ 3.580532
    7 Apache_derived + Inkeri_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived + Sicilian_derived @ 3.645587
    8 Apache_derived + Jew_Francestrale_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived + Russian_North_derived @ 3.645923
    9 Apache_derived + Basque_derived + Finnish_derived + Jordanian_derived @ 3.669784
    10 Apache_derived + CEU_derived + Jordanian_derived + Norwegian_V_derived @ 3.679050
    11 Apache_derived + Iberian_derived + Jew_Algeria_derived + Karelian_derived @ 3.690078
    12 Apache_derived + Jordanian_derived + Norwegian_V_derived + Norwegian_V_derived @ 3.697072
    13 Apache_derived + CEU_derived + Egyptian_derived + Orcadian_derived @ 3.708522
    14 Apache_derived + Basque_derived + Jordanian_derived + Russian_North_derived @ 3.710806
    15 Apache_derived + Inkeri_derived + Jew_Francestrale_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived @ 3.715400
    16 Apache_derived + Finnish_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived + Sicilian_derived @ 3.726892
    17 Apache_derived + British_derived + Jordanian_derived + Norwegian_V_derived @ 3.729484
    18 Apache_derived + Egyptian_derived + Norwegian_V_derived + Welsh_derived @ 3.756615
    19 Apache_derived + Basque_derived + Jordanian_derived + Karelian_derived @ 3.758073
    20 Apache_derived + Jew_Italia_derived + Puerto-Rican_derived + Russian_North_derived @ 3.763185

    Least-squares method.

    Using 1 population approximation:
    1 Miwok_derived @ 14.845313
    2 Puerto-Rican_derived @ 17.095482
    3 Mexican_derived @ 19.790222
    4 Colville_derived @ 20.893429
    5 Ashkenazim_V_derived @ 21.597666
    6 Romania_derived @ 22.555450
    7 Bulgarian_derived @ 23.178505
    8 Gagauz_derived @ 23.276686
    9 Swiss_derived @ 24.022049
    10 Greek_South_derived @ 24.104401
    11 Macedonian_derived @ 24.163662
    12 Costanoan_derived @ 24.705030
    13 Italian_North_derived @ 24.719406
    14 Greek_North_derived @ 24.822214
    15 Montenegrin_derived @ 24.914684
    16 Provancestralal_derived @ 25.556179
    17 Italian-North_derived @ 25.740135
    18 Jew_Romania_derived @ 25.787836
    19 Serbian_derived @ 25.961607
    20 Tsimsian_derived @ 26.644518

    Using 2 populations approximation:
    1 50% Serbian_derived +50% Serrano_derived @ 7.893962

    Using 3 populations approximation:
    1 50% Miwok_derived +25% Russian_North_derived +25% Sephardim_derived @ 5.127058

    I don't get what these numbers are even saying.

    1. The numbers after @ are how closely you match that population (or combination of populations). So the smaller the number, the more closely you match that population. The 1 population approximations are above 10, so I'd consider them fairly distant. The 4 population approximation has closer numbers - looks like it's mostly saying you're European (mostly Scandinavian), Native American (mostly Apache), and Middle Eastern. That is fairly typical for Mexicans, who tend to be either (or a mix of) European and Native American, and sometimes African.

  8. Thank you for your very useful posts! Having uploaded to Genmatch Genesis and finding no close relatives, I started dabbling in the admixture area without a clue how to interpret the results but am feeling more confident after reading your articles, especially the information that there are few English populations included in the Eurogenes tests. My grandparents' origins: England (Somerset, Coventry, Manchester) and Ireland (1st 2 more certain as I've never met my natural father). But my top results from K13 and K15 were West Scottish, Orcadian and South-East English.
    The map at https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-17124-4/figures/1 really helps to make more sense of British Isles results.
    My observations:
    1. West Scottish could equally be Northern Irish (protestant I assume) due to large scale relatively recent migrations.
    2. South-East English covers most of the country, certainly including Coventry, maybe Manchester too.
    3. Orkney is one of the most intensely researched areas of the British Isles which may be why it is over represented in many people's results; also it is more closely related to Southern Irish than the rest of the UK, which I did not expect.
    4. Somerset is completely absent from the map which surprised me as it is the sort of county with deep rural pockets where finding people with 4 locally born grandparents should be easy; so the South-West English category may only represent Devon & Cornwall (I did get some South-West but much lower down than I was expecting).

    1. Keep in mind the samples and populations used for the Irish DNA Atlas are probably not the same as those used for Eurogenes, so I wouldn't assume Eurogenes has as many Orkney samples as this project does.

      The Orkney samples being most similar to Southern Ireland might have to do with Viking influences.

  9. Hi. Please, can you help me analyze these results, I will be very grateful.
    For example: Ashkenazy_Jews (Behar) 24.25.
    7 86. 3% Hungarians (Behar)+13.7% Azerbaijan_Jews (Behar) @ 2.52

    Does that mean that some of my ancestor was a Jew or what?

    Dodecad V3 Oracle results:
    Admix Results (sorted):
    # Population Percent
    1 West_European 33.59
    2 Mediterranean 27.01
    3 East_European 21.78
    4 West_Asian 13.99
    5 Southwest_Asian 1.81
    6 South_Asian 1.12
    7 Northwest_African 0.56
    8 Southeast_Asian 0.16

    Single Population Sharing:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Hungarians (Behar) 7.35
    2 Slovenian (Xing) 7.49
    3 Balkans (Dodecad) 10.43
    4 Romanians_14 (Behar) 11.89
    5 German (Dodecad) 19.36
    6 Tuscan (Xing) 19.36
    7 Tuscan (Henn) 19.8
    8 TSI (HapMap) 20.11
    9 CEU (HapMap) 21.44
    10 N_Italian (Dodecad) 21.83
    11 N._European (Xing) 22.03
    12 Argyll (1000 Genomes) 22.65
    13 Orcadian (HGDP) 23.36
    14 O_Italian (Dodecad) 23.62
    15 Orkney (1000 Genomes) 23.7
    16 Mixed_Slav (Dodecad) 24.15
    17 Ashkenazy_Jews (Behar) 24.25
    18 Polish (Dodecad) 24.39
    19 French (Dodecad) 24.49
    20 French (HGDP) 24.73

    Mixed Mode Population Sharing:
    # Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
    1 74.1% Romanians_14 (Behar) + 25.9% Swedish (Dodecad) @ 2.05
    2 61.9% Slovenian (Xing) + 38.1% Romanians_14 (Behar) @ 2.07
    3 87.6% Hungarians (Behar) + 12.4% Armenian (Dodecad) @ 2.12
    4 88% Hungarians (Behar) + 12% Armenians_16 (Behar) @ 2.18
    5 79.3% Slovenian (Xing) + 20.7% Greek (Dodecad) @ 2.26
    6 84.2% Hungarians (Behar) + 15.8% Turkish (Dodecad) @ 2.42
    7 86.3% Hungarians (Behar) + 13.7% Azerbaijan_Jews (Behar) @ 2.52
    8 73.7% Balkans (Dodecad) + 26.3% Mixed_Germanic (Dodecad) @ 2.55
    9 62.3% Romanians_14 (Behar) + 37.7% German (Dodecad) @ 2.64
    10 88% Hungarians (Behar) + 12% Assyrian (Dodecad) @ 2.64
    11 77.9% Hungarians (Behar) + 22.1% Ashkenazy_Jews (Behar) @ 2.66
    12 79% Hungarians (Behar) + 21% Ashkenazi (Dodecad) @ 2.68
    13 86.7% Hungarians (Behar) + 13.3% Druze (HGDP) @ 2.7
    14 85.6% Hungarians (Behar) + 14.4% Turks (Behar) @ 2.72
    15 75.6% Romanians_14 (Behar) + 24.4% Norwegian (Dodecad) @ 2.74
    16 78.6% Balkans (Dodecad) + 21.4% Irish (Dodecad) @ 2.91
    17 86.8% Hungarians (Behar) + 13.2% Iranian_Jews (Behar) @ 2.92
    18 85.3% Hungarians (Behar) + 14.7% Uzbekistan_Jews (Behar) @ 2.92
    19 87.1% Hungarians (Behar) + 12.9% Iraq_Jews (Behar) @ 2.92
    20 68.6% Balkans (Dodecad) + 31.4% N._European (Xing) @ 2.95

    1. Not necessarily - with certain calculators I also get a lot of results for Jewish populations, but I have no known Jewish ancestry. You have six mixed mode populations that are estimated a closer match to you and don't include Jewish - if you have no record of Jewish ancestry, I'd take it with a grain of salt, especially if you get no Jewish results with whatever company you tested with.